Excretory Sistem Proyect

In class our teacher, Cecilia Adem, introduced us the last proyect in Biology. This consisted on making a model and explaining all the parts of the urinary sistem or excretory sistem. She also assigned us pairs to work with. I worked with Francisco Aresi. Here it is our proyect:

Parts of the excretory system:


  • Kidneys:

They are at the back of the abdomen, behind the intestine.

The kidney is present on each side of the vertebral column in the abdominal cavity. Humans have two kidneys and each kidney is supplied with blood from the renal artery.

The kidneys remove from the blood the nitrogenous  such as urea, as well as salts and excess water, and excrete them in the form of urine. This is done with the help of millions of nephrons present in the kidney.

The urine from the kidney is collected by the ureter, one from each kidney, and is passed to the bladder.


  • The bladder:


The bladder collects and stores the urine until urination. The urine collected in the bladder is passed into the external environment from the body through an opening called the urethra.

The bladder is the organ that collects waste excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. It is an  elastic organ, and sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder through the ureters and exits in the urethra.

Urine, excreted by the kidneys, collects in the bladder before disposal by urination. The bladder usually holds 300-350 ml of urine. The bladder stores larger amounts of urine without a significant rise in internal pressure.


  • Interior vena cava:


The inferior vena cava is the largest vein in the human body. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart. Although the vena cava is large.
The inferior vena cava forms at the superior end of the pelvic cavity when the common iliac veins unite to form a larger vein. From the pelvis, the inferior vena cava ascends through the posterior abdominal body wall just to the right of the vertebral column.


  • Ureters:

The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. The upper half of the ureter is located in the abdomen and the lower half is located in the pelvic area. The tube has thick walls composed of a fibrous, a muscular, and a mucus coat, which are able to contract

  • Renal Veins:


The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. They connect the inferior vena cava to the kidney. They carry the blood filtered by the kidney.There are two renal veins, a left and a right. As they enter the kidneys, each vein separates into two parts. The posterior veins assist in draining the back section of each kidney, while the anterior veins assist the front part. These veins also are responsible for draining blood from the ureter, which transports urine away from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.


  • Renal arteries:

The renal arteries arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle with the aorta. The renal arteries carry blood flow to the kidneys. Up to a third of total cardiac output can pass through the renal arteries to be filtered by the kidneys.


  • Urethra:

The urethra is the tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the exterior of the body. The female urethra is around 2 inches long and ends inferior to the clitoris and superior to the vaginal opening. In males, the urethra is around 8 to 10 inches long and ends at the tip of the penis. The urethra is also an organ of the male reproductive system as it carries sperm out of the body through the penis.

Besides, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.


  • Dorsal Aorta:

The abdominal aorta is about an inch in diameter and extends along the entire length of the abdomen, from the diaphragm to the pelvis. It enters the abdomen through a small opening at the posterior end of the diaphragm, just anterior to the spinal column. From this point, it descends along the spine parallel to the inferior vena cava until it reaches the pelvis, where it divides into the right and left common iliac arteries.

Many major arteries branch from the abdominal aorta to provide blood flow to the vital organs of the abdomen. Its visceral branches provide blood to organs, while its parietal branches supply blood to the tissues of the abdominal body wall.


  • Adrenal gland:

You have two adrenal glands. They’re located on top of each of your kidneys. They  produce hormones.

While they’re small in size, the adrenal glands are responsible for  hormone-related functions in your body. As a result, disorders that affect your adrenal glands can have a broad impact on your health.

How we make the model:

To make the model, we used a pair of headphones to represent both kidneys which have wires that we used to represent the ureter. Also, on the kidneys,  we used telgopor to make the adrenal gland. Later, we found contact paper, that we cut it to make the vena cava. The same with the dorsal aorta, which is blue fabric. Finally, to create the urinary bladder, we bought a can of “Coca-Cola”  that we wrapped in red contact paper. Also, we cut red contact paper to create the urethra.

Respiration and Gas Exchange

Activity 11.3, page 143.

A1)  It is important to boil the water the dissolved air can be driven away.

A2) The sugar solution must be cooled because it is hot, so, yeast would die and it won’t respire.

A3) The liquid paraffin is used to separate the yeast in the cooled sugar solution from the air into the test tube.

A4) In the test tube with living yeast, yeast respires carbon dioxide and the lime water absorbed it. However, in the test tube with dead yeast, the lime water  will remain clear.

A5) In the sugar solution containing living yeast you would  find ethanol at the end of the experiment. Yeast respired what they release  while they are respiring.

«The Tell Tail Heart» Comic

For our Language Class Pilar  asked us to create a comic with a dialogue between two characters of the story that we have read in class that is “The Tell Tail Heart” This two characters were the narrator and the police. I worked with Luz Esteban and Olivia Obligado.

Here is our comic:


Hurricane Maria : news report

Hurricane Maria destroyed countries


    The hurricane started on Monday 18th in the afternoon on Dominican Republic,  Antigua y Barbuda. The storm made landfall at Yabucoa in Puerto Rico’s southeast shortly after 6 a.m, with winds as strong as 155 m.p.h. Last week, Hurricane Maria was 185 miles southeast of Puerto Rican capital San Juan, and St. Croix, had injured 55,000 people,half the population of the US Virgin Islands.

    Moreover, tropical storm conditions were expected to begin on the southern coast of the Dominican Republic worsening the hurricane conditions. The storm moved on to the Turks and Caicos Islands and the southeastern Bahamas. Also, it moved to Yabucoa in Puerto Rico’s, with winds as strong as 155 m.p.h. It had crossed the United States Virgin Islands as a Category 5 storm, this category is extremely dangerous for this country and population.

    However, the public health and infrastructure systems had been damaged  so, they sent professionals to the mainland.

    In conclusion, the countries had suffered a terrible hit from nature, as well as the population. They will have to repair all the chaos that the streets and casualties had been destroyed. Houses and buildings should be reconstructive again and all the cities.

History Sources

In our history class we started reading the German chapter. Our teacher told us to analyse, in pairs, 5 sources which we can found in our history book. I worked with Valentina Re. This is our work:

Source 1:

From this source we can understand the hatred towards the Treaty of Versailles, that Hitler and the german population had. Most of the points of this treaty were not beneficial at all for the german citizens. They were forced to pay reparations, they lost land and most importantly, they had to accept the blame for starting the war. All these things, humiliated her in front of the other countries. Hitler and the german society, felt the Treaty of Versailles was done to damage her and that’s what the german dictator is trying to express through these words. Although Germany was partly responsible for the World War 1, as well as other states, and for causing damage in a lot of countries, it was not entirely her fault.

Source 3:

In this source we can see the retelling of a woman who was present during the occupation of the Ruhr by the french and belgian troops. As the germans were unable to pay one of the quotes they owed to the allies, the troops of France and Belgium decided to enter this german territory and took by force what they deserved. They violently started taking, in the form of raw materials, everything the germans owed them. This source describes how they rudely they treated the people living their, and how they acted as if it was their territory doing everything they wanted.

Source 4:

This image is a british cartoon from 1921. There are two people which are watching another one drown. The two watchers are symbolising the leaders of France and Britain, and the person drowning is symbolising Germany. Moreover we can see a life-belt which is symbolising a loan. We can understand how France and Britain, which are not having any economic problems, are watching germany is falling apart. At that time, the german economy was broken because of the damage she had suffered with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Because of this in the cartoon Germany is asking the leaders of France and Britain, whose countries are economically stable, a loan so that they could recover. However, these two are just watching, with no intention of helping her.

Source 9:

This british historian is trying to explain how the germans blamed the reparations she had to pay because of the treaty of versailles, and the Weimar republic for the hyperinflation they were suffering from at the moment.  She blamed the reparations because these broke her economy and humiliated her as well. Moreover, she blamed the Weimar Republic because she accepted they had to pay reparations and these made the german population felt like their government was supporting the Treaty of Versailles which, in the eyes of the german people, damaged their country. Despite this, this historian is saying that the causes of hyperinflation are more complex that these.

Source 13:

This source is a poster of a film protagonised by Marlene Dietrich, which was one of the greatest international stars produced during this period of time in which the german cinema grew a lot. Germany, was now in a new period because of the appearance of Gustav Stresemann and his new government. During this time there was more freedom which allowed art and culture to flourish. This gave as a result the appearance of new films and international stars which made the cinema industry be more significant in the life of german citizens.



Trabajo de Scratch: Juego Globos

Durante la primera parte del año nuestro profesor, Norberto Bufi, nos explico como usar la aplicacion «Scratch» y asi poder crear nuestro propio juego.

Al principio del proyecto, decidimos crear un laberito pero no pudimos concretarlos, ya que, no logramos dificultarlo. Entonces, optamos por una nueva opcion de juego. Este se basa en explotar todos los globos con ayuda del mouse y asi llegar a 100 puntos en un tiempo determinado.

Como no había mas tiempo para pensar en una nueva idea, decidimos optar por una idea de internet y realizar nuestro propio procedimiento.

Este es mi trabajo realizado con Olivia Obligado y Luz Esteban.


Aca les dejamos otros juegos propios de scratch:



Nota conceptual: historia entre Dulkancellin y Shampalwe

Historia de Shampalwe y Dulkancellin

Era la octava lluvia, estábamos en la cabaña frente a la chimenea degustando el delicioso pan que había amasado mi madre, vieja kush, con sus propias manos. Los niños estaban jugando afuera en el jardín con otro husihuilkes de los confines. Era un dia lluvioso,  Dulkancellin estaba feliz, yo estaba feliz, los niños y Vieja Kush estaban felices. El padre de mis queridos cuatro hijos, se estaba preparando para ir a la guerra. Estaba demasiada triste de que llegara el día en el que el tenga que partir hacia la guerra. Dulkancellin era el amor de mi vida, el era mi compañero.


Llego el dia en el que Dulkancellin tuvo que partir hacia la guerra, era un dia triste y desolado. Yo tenía a la dulce Wilkilen dentro de mi vientre. Estaba angustiada, no quería que Dulkancellin se fuera y me dejara sola con Vieja Kush a cargo de los niños. Pero llegó el día en que Dulkancellin partió con los demás guerreros husihuilkes hacia las tierras para vencer al enemigo y dar victoria para el pueblo Los Confines.


Pasaron unos meses, finalmente llegó Dulkancellin dolorido y lastimado. Junto a Vieja Kush y los niños lo curamos. Wilkilen dio la señal de que ya era hora de salir a la luz. Todos estábamos preparados para la llegada de la pequeña y hermosa Wilkilen. Finalmente, la niña nació, eramos tan felices y disfrutamos de la llegada que decidimos hacer una celebración junto a Dulkancellin, para celebrar su llegada y el nacimiento. Para eso fue hacia el estanque a juntar unas bellas flores para decorar la celebración, de repente, una serpiente se acercó y terminó mordiendo mi tobillo sin piedad. Los lulus me ayudaron y me llevaron hacia nuestro hogar. Resulta que había tomado flores sin semilla, cuales son una trampa de aquella malvada serpiente.

La luz de mis ojos se oscurecía, mis dedos estaban inmóviles, no sentía mis piernas. Mis queridos hijos y mi amado Dulkancellin, estaban todos alrededor de mi. Vieja Kush, también. Le pedí que se acercara, con la voz que casi se quedaba sin sonido, y le pedí que se haga cargo de ellos. Porque sabía que iban a quedar en manos de un familiar y de Kush, quien era sabia. Dulkancellin, era un hombre guerrero y bueno. Lo amaba, pero tuve que partir, ya era mi hora.